Three Rings for the Elven Kings
Ella kom ye la! I cried unto these ones, I've wandered through the dark so long! I've waited through the night for the rising sun!

THREE RINGS for the ELVEN KINGS

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History of Middle-earth

Our primary sources for the period after the founding of the Reunited Kingdom in 3104 BC are the Prose Edda, Oera Linda Book and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, bridging most of the gap between Tolkien’s last word on Middle-earth and our own era. Tolkien’s last word is a fragmentary sequel to The Lord of the Rings called The New Shadow, published in The Peoples of Middle-earth (though some of his earlier writings, especially those about Eriol in The Book of Lost Tales, also give important information). In a 1972 letter to Fr. Douglas Carter, Tolkien wrote:
 
“I have written nothing beyond the first few years of the Fourth Age. (Except the beginning of a tale supposed to refer to the end of the reign of Eldaron [sic] about 100 years after the death of Aragorn. Then I of course discovered that the Kings Peace would contain no tales worth recounting; and his wars would have little interest after the overthrow of Sauron; but that almost certainly a restlessness would appear about then, owing to the (it seems) inevitable boredom of Men with the good: there would be secret societies practising dark cults, and ‘orc-cults’ among adolescents.)” (Letters, #338)
 
This brief note on the end of the reign of Eldarion (whose name he misspells) about a hundred years after the death if his father, Elessar (Aragorn), is the last fixed point that Tolkien gives us in the history of Middle-earth. It works out as around 2882 BC, and from there we have only the list of Trór’s (i.e. Aragorn’s) descendants in the Prose Edda, until the Oera Linda Book opens with the cataclysmic flood of 2194 BC. The latter work takes us up to the 1st century BC, after which the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle becomes our main historical source.
The Oera Linda Book tells us that the three foremothers of mankind were the sisters Lyda, Finda and Frya. We can surmise that they awoke with the first uprising of the sun in 10,153 BC, and that Lyda was the ancestress of the Southrons (Haradrim), Finda the ancestress of the Easterlings and Frya the ancestress of the Edain – who later became the Dúnedain, or Men of the West. Lyda eventually died of a broken heart and Finda perished under unknown circumstances, but Frya – after watching over her descendants for seven ‘generations’ (presumably meaning millennia) – gave a law code to her children before ascending to the heavens during the flood of 2194 BC.
 
     This is our earliest history.
     Wr-alda, who alone is eternal and good, made the beginning. Then commenced time. Time wrought all things, even the earth. The earth bore grass, herbs, and trees, all useful and all noxious animals. All that is good and useful she brought forth by day, and all that is bad and injurious by night.
     After the twelfth Juulfeest she brought forth three maidens:—
     Lyda out of fierce heat.
     Finda out of strong heat.
     Frya out of moderate heat.
     When the last came into existence, Wr-alda breathed his spirit upon her in order that men might be bound to him.
     [...] They each bore twelve sons and twelve daughters—at every Juul-time a couple. Thence come all mankind.

 
(Oera Linda Book, Ch. 4: This was inscribed upon the Walls of Fryasburg in Texland, as well as at Stavia and Medeasblik)
Frya was succeeded, in 2194 BC, by a line of theocratic ‘Folk Mothers’ ruling over the Frisians in Northern and Western Europe – i.e. what had previously been known as the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor. The name of the Frisians – Frya’s Ones, or Free Ones derives that of their ancestress, Frya, whose name means Free. The dynasty of Aragorn, however, survived in Scania (Southern Sweden), which it took control of in 2013 BC. Much later, in AD 449, a member of this dynasty – Hengest, King of the Saxons – conquered England.
The following lists have been compiled from information contained in Tolkien’s own writings – in particular The Return of the King, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales, and The War of the Jewels. All dates given by Tolkien for the history of Middle-earth can be converted to BC dates using a simple formula: the Years of the Sun began in 10,153 BC, the Second Age in 9563 BC, the Third Age in 6122 BC, and the Fourth Age (Gondor) in 3102 BC (see Chronology for more details). The list of Folk Mothers and subsequent Frisian rulers is derived from the Oera Linda Book and later chronciclers such as Martinus Hamconius, while that of the descendants of Aragorn uses the Prose Edda and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as its primary sources, plus Tolkien’s The Book of Lost Tales and The Lost Road and Other Writings.


Folk of Bëor – First House of the Edain

The Folk of Bëor entered Beleriand in 9844 BC and ceased to exist as an independent people in 9694 BC, with their descendants eventually migrating to Númenor. The list on the right derives from The Silmarillion and The War of the Jewels.

Lords of the Folk of Bëor

Balan (Bëor the Old) 9844–9843 (d. 9799)
Baran (Bëor the Young) 9843–9774
Boron 9774–9746
Boromir 9746–9722
Bregor 9722–9706
Bregolas 9706–9699
Barahir 9699–9694
Beren Erchamion (de jure) 9694–9688, 9688–9651
Dior Eluchíl (de jure) 9651–9648
Eluréd (de jure) 9648–9647


Haladin (Folk of Haleth) – Second House of the Edain

The Haladin, also known as the Folk of Haleth, entered Beleriand in 9842 BC but were not united under a single chieftain until 9779 BC. They ceased to exist as an independent people in 9653 BC, their descendants eventually migrating to Númenor. The list on the right is derived from The Silmarillion and The War of the Jewels.

Chieftains of the Haladin (Folk of Haleth)

Haldad (de facto) 9779
Haldar (de facto) 9779
Haleth the Hunter (Chieftainess) 9779–9734
Haldan 9734–9703
Halmir 9703–9683
Haldir 9683–9682
Handir 9682–9659
Brandir the Lame 9659–9655
Hardang 9655–9653
Avranc (de jure) 9653–?


Folk of Marach & Hador – Third House of the Edain

The Folk of Marach, known as the Folk of Hador from 9738 BC, entered Beleriand in 9841 BC and ceased to exist as an independent people in 9682 BC, their descendants eventually migrating to Númenor. The list on the right is derived from The Silmarillion and The War of the Jewels.

Lords of the Folk of Marach

Marach 9841–9778
Malach Aradan 9778–9756
Magor 9756–?
Hathol

Lords of the Folk of Hador

Hador Lórindol 8738–9699
Galdor the Tall 9699–9692
Húrin Thalion 9692–9652
Tuor Eladar (de jure) 9652–9629
Eärendil the Mariner (de jure) 9629–9567
Elros (de jure) (later Elros Tar-Minyatur) 9567–9532 (d. 9122)


Kingdom of Númenor

Founded as a new home for the Edain, now renamed the Dúnedain (Men of the West) on an island in the Great Sea, following the destruction of Beleriand in 9564 BC. Númenor was itself later destroyed, in turn, during the Change of the World in 6245 BC. The list on the right is derived from Unfinished Tales.

Kings and Queens of Númenor

Elros Tar-Minyatur (Gimilzôr) 9532–9122
Vardamir Nólimon (Zimravrati) 9122–9121 (d. 9093) with...
Tar-Amandil (Ar-Aphanuzîr) 9122–8974 (d. 8961)
Tar-Elendil (Ar-Gimilzîr) 8974–8824 (d. 8813)
Írimon Tar-Meneldur (Ar-Minûlzûr) 8824–8681 (d. 8622)
Anardil Tar-Aldarion 8681–8489 (d. 8466)
Tar-Ancalimë (Queen) 8489–8284 (d. 8279)
Tar-Anárion 8284–8170 (d. 8160)
Tar-Súrion 8170–8008 (d. 7990)
Tar-Telperiën (Queen) 8008–7873 (d. 7873)
Tar-Minastir 7873–7695 (d. 7691)
Tar-Ciryatan (Ar-Balkumagan) 7695–7535 (d. 7529)
Tar-Atanamir the Great 7535–7343
Tar-Ancalimon 7343–7178
Tar-Telemmaitë 7178–7038
Tar-Vanimeldë (Queen) 7038–6927
Herucalmo Tar-Anducal 6927–6907
Tar-Alcarin 6907–6827
Tar-Calmacil (Ar-Belzagar) 6827–6739
Tar-Ardamin (Ar-Abattarîk) 6739–6665
Tar-Herunúmen (Ar-Adûnakhôr) 6665–6602
Tar-Hostamir (Ar-Zimrathôn) 6602–6531
Tar-Falassion (Ar-Sakalthôr) 6531–6462
Tar-Telemnar (Ar-Gimilzôr) 6462–6387
Tar-Palantir the Farsighted (Ar-Inziladûn) 6387–6309
Míriel (Ar-Zimraphel) (Queen) 6309 (d. 6245)
Tar-Calion (Ar-Pharazôn the Golden) 6309–6245


Kingdom of Arnor

One of the two Realms in Exile founded after the destruction of Númenor in 6245 BC (Gondor being the other), Arnor was situated in the north-west of Middle-earth. The kingdom lasted until 5262 BC, when it was divided. The list on the right derives from The Return of the King.

Kings of Arnor

Elendil the Tall (also King of Gondor) 6244–6123 with...
Isildur (also King of Gondor) 6244–6121
Valandil 6121–5874
Eldacar 5874–5784
Arantar 5784–5688
Tarcil 5688–5608
Tarondor 5608–5521
Valandur 5521–5471
Elendur 5471–5346
Eärendur 5346–5262


Kingdom of Arthedain

The most important of the three kingdoms into which Arnor was divided in 5262 BC (the others being Cardolan and Rhudaur, the kings of which are unknown). Arthedain was also sometimes referred to as Arnor. The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Kings of Arthedain

Amlaith of Fornost 5262–5177
Beleg 5177–5094
Mallor 5094–5013
Celepharn 5013–4932
Celebrindor 4932–4851
Malvegil 4851–4774
Argeleb I 4774–4767
Arveleg I 4767–4714
Araphor 4714–4534
Argeleb II 4534–4453
Arvegil 4453–4380
Arveleg II 4380–4310
Araval 4310–4232
Araphant 4232–4159
Arvedui Last-king 4159–4149 (d. 4148)


Rangers of the North

After the fall of Arthedain in 4149 BC, the royal line was preserved as a chieftainship amongst the Rangers of the North (i.e. those of the Dúnedain who survived in the area of the former Kingdom of Arnor). The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Chieftains of the Rangers of the North

Aranarth 4147–4017
Arahael 4017–3946
Aranuir 3946–3876
Aravir 3876–3804
Aragorn I 3804–3796
Araglas 3796–3668
Arahad I 3668–3600
Aragost 3600–3535
Aravorn 3535–3469
Arahad II 3469–3404
Arassuil 3404–3339
Arathorn I 3339–3275
Argonui 3275–3211
Arador 3211–3193
Arathorn II 3193–3190
Aragorn II (later Elessar Telcontar) 3190–3104 (d. 2982)


Kingdom of Gondor

One of the two Realms in Exile founded after the destruction of Númenor in 6245 BC (Arnor being the other), Gondor was situated far to the south of Arnor. Despite the dying out of its royal line in 4073 BC, the kingdom survived right up until the War of the Ring, and in 3104 BC became the core territory of the newly founded Reunited Kingdom. The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Kings of Gondor

Elendil the Tall (also King of Arnor) 6244–6123 with...
Isildur (also King of Arnor) 6244–6121 and...
Anárion 6244–6124 and...
Meneldil 6124–5965
Cemendur 5965–5885
Eärendil 5885–5799
Anardil 5799–5712
Ostoher 5712–5631
Tarostar Rómendacil I 5631–5582
Turambar 5582–5456
Atanatar I 5456–5375
Siriondil 5375–5293
Tarannon Falastur 5293–5210
Eärnil I 5210–5187
Ciryandil 5187–5108
Ciryaher Hyarmendacil I 5108–4974
Atanatar II the Glorious 4974–4897
Narmacil I 4897–4829
Calmacil 4829–4819
Minalcar Romendacil II 4819–4757
Valacar 4757–4691
Vinitharya Eldacar (first reign) 4691–4686 (d. 4633)
Castamir the Usurper 4686–4676
Vinitharya Eldacar (second reign) 4676–4633
Aldamir 4633–4583
Vinyarion Hyarmendacil II 4583–4502
Minardil 4502–4489
Telemnar 4489–4487
Tarondor 4487–4325
Telumehtar Umbardacil 4325–4273
Narmacil II 4273–4267
Calimehtar 4267–4187
Ondoher 4187–4179
Interregnum 41794178
Eärnil II 4178–4080
Eärnur 4080–4073

Ruling Stewards of Gondor

Mardil the Steadfast 4073–4043
Eradan 4043–4007
Herion 4007–3975
Belegorn 3975–3919
Húrin I 3919–3879
Túrin I 3879–3845
Hador 3845–3728
Barahir 3728–3711
Dior 3711–3688
Denethor I 3688–3646
Boromir 3646–3634
Cirion 3634–3556
Hallas 3556–3518
Húrin II 3518–3495
Belecthor I 3495–3468
Orodreth 3468–3438
Ecthelion I 3438–3425
Egalmoth 3425–3380
Beren 3380–3360
Beregond 3360–3312
Belecthor II 3312–3251
Thorondir 3251–3241
Túrin II 3241–3209
Turgon 3209–3170
Ecthelion II 3170–3139
Denethor II 3139–3104


Kingdom of Rohan

The kingdom of the Rohirrim, or Horse-lords of the Riddermark, founded when the Éothéod were granted land in the province of Calenardhon by Cirion, Steward of Gondor, in 3613 BC. The list on the right derives from The Return of the King.

Kings of the Mark (First Line)

Eorl the Young 3613–3578
Brego 3578–3553
Aldor the Old 3553–3478
Fréa 3478–3464
Frëawine 3464–3443
Goldwine 3443–3424
Déor 3424–3405
Gram 3405–3382
Helm Hammerhand 3382–3364 with...

Usurper

Wulf (de facto) 3365–3364

Kings of the Mark (Second Line)

Fréaláf Hildeson 3364–3325
Brytta Léofa 3325–3281
Walda 3281–3272
Folca the Hunter 3272–3259
Folcwine 3259–3220
Fengel 3220–3170
Thengel 3170–3143
Théoden Ednew 3143–3104

Kings of the Mark (Third Line)

Éomer Éadig 3104–3039
Elfwine the Fair 3039–?


The Shire

Land of the Hobbits, first settled in 4522 BC. Nominally subject to the Kings of Arthedain, of which it formed a part, after the fall of that kingdom the Hobbits instituted the office of Thain to discharge the functions of the former kings (the names of some of the earlier Thains are not recorded). The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Shire-thains (Oldbucks)

Bucca of the Marish 4144–?
Ten more Oldbuck Thains, names unknown, then...
Gorhendad ?–3783 (d. ?)

Shire-thains (Tooks)

Isumbras I 3783–?
Eight more Took Thains, including, in unknown order...
Isumbras II
Isengrim I
Ferumbras I
Paladin I
With four others, names unknown, then...
Isengrim II 3440–3401
Isumbras III 3401–3364
Ferumbras II 3364–3322
Fortinbras I 3322–3275
Gerontius the Old Took 3275–3203
Isengrim III 3202–3193
Isumbras IV 3193–3184
Fortinbras II 3184–3143
Ferumbras III 3143–3108
Paladin II 3108–3089
Peregrin I 3089–3039 (d. ?)
Faramir I 3039–?


Reunited Kingdom & Descendants of Aragorn

On the right are listed Trór – equated here with Elessar (Aragorn) – and his descendants, as derived from the Prose Edda and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Tolkien’s names, where known, are given in brackets, and derive from The Return of the King, The Lost Road and Other Writings and The Book of Lost Tales. The Dúnedain (Men of the West), who made up most of the population of the Reunited Kingdom, were the ancestors of the Germanic peoples of Europe.
The descendants of Aragorn were dispossessed of the throne in 2194 BC, during the upheavals of the Great Flood. Later, in 2013 BC, Scéaf, son of the last King of the Reunited Kingdom, established a new, much smaller realm in Scania, or Skênland (Southern Sweden) – the former region of Dol Guldur in Mirkwood. Later still, in 50 BC, after the latest in a long series of wars of conquest, various members of the dynasty were given rulership of different areas of Northern Europe. One of these, Wegdæg, became King of the Saxons, and was the ancestor of Hengist. In AD 449 Hengist conquered the island of Tol Eressëa, which became known as England.

Kings of the Reunited Kingdom (Telcontari)

Trór (Elessar Telcontar) 3104–2982
Lóridi (Eldarion) 2982–2882
Einridi 2882–?
Vingethor
Vingener
Móda
Magi ?–2194

Kings of Scania (Scyldings)

Scéaf (Sheave) 2013–2006
Bedwig 2006–?
Hwala
Hraþra
Itermon
Heremod
Sceldwéa
Béaw
Tætwa
Géat
Godwulf
Finn
Friþuwulf
Fréaláf
Fréawine
Friþuwald
Woden

Kings of the Saxons

Wegdæg (Heden) 50 BC–?
Wihtgils (Eoh)
Witta (Ottor Wǽfre)
Hengist (Hengest) AD ?–488
Æsc 488–512


Free Peoples of the World (Frisians)

According to the Oera Linda Book (and supplemented by the chronicle of Occa Scarlensis and Johannes Flytarp), immediately after the Great Flood of 2194 BC the lands of the Reunited Kingdom came to be ruled by a line of Folk Mothers, based at Fryasburch, Texland (modern Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands), in a theocratic matriarchy that lasted until 590 BC, with two later attempts at revival. The first Folk Mother, Fasta, was appointed by Frya herself, when the latter ascended to the starry heavens. They called themselves the Free Peoples of the World, an ancient term that originally included Elves and Dwarves, but which later evolved into ‘Frisians’ (Frya’s Ones, or Free Ones).
After suffering invasions over many centuries, by the descendants of Aragorn and others, in 304 BC the Frisians, whose lands were now much smaller in extent, established a Greek-style militaristic monarchy – under Friso, a native of the Frisian colony in the Punjab, who had worked for Alexander the Great. The Oera Linda Book becomes sketchy after this point, though details of later rulers are preserved by the chroniclers Occa Scarlensis and Martinus Hamconius. From AD 130 to 392 Frisian rulers were known as Dukes, as Roman clients, but an independent kingship was later re-established. This survived until Charlemagne annexed what remained of the Frisian kingdom to his empire. The last independent fragment, the island of Ameland, fell in AD 806.

Ancestress of the Frisians

Frya 10,153–2194

Folk Mothers of Texland

Fasta 2214–2038/1978 (or 2194–after 2145)
Sünje 2038–1978
Minna 2038/1978–1912/1906 (or fl. 2013)
Stintje 1912/1906–1872/1870
Inska 1872/1870–1820
Fenna 1820–1757
Elke 1757–1711
Swantje 1711–1667
Insa 1667–1621
Rôsamond 1621 (or 1631–before 1621)
Hel-licht 1621–1580 (or fl. 1621)
Gerit 1580–1553
Stina 1553–1489
Renske 1489–1429
Wibeke 1429–1377
Inka 1377–1328
Aletta 1328–1277
Eltje 1277–1224
Dywek 1224–1186
Nela 1186–1155
Imka 1155–1114
Imme 1114–1056
Enna 1056–1006
Hilka 1006–946
Fenneke 946–884
Heike 884–814
Renke 814–714
Tjarda 714–644
Frâna 644–589 (or ?–590)
Adela (acting) 590–559
No Folk Mother 590–306
Gosa 361–263 (or 306–?)
No Folk Mother 263–70
Prontlik 70–50 BC

Kings of the Frisians

Adel I Friso (de facto) 313–245 (or 304–264)
Adel II Atha-rik 245–151 (or 264–?)
Adel III Ubbo 151–71
Adel IV Asinga Ascon (Asega-Âskar) 71 BC–AD 11
Diocarus Segon 11–46
Dibbaldus Segon 46–85
Tabbo 85–130

Dukes of the Frisians

Asconius 130–173
Adelbold 173–187 (d. 208)
Titus Boiocalus 187–240
(?) Ubbo 240–299
Haron I Ubbo 299–335
Odilbald I 335–360
Haron II Udolph (Audulf) 360–392

Kings of the Frisians

Richold I Offo (Offa of Angel) 392–435
Odilbald II (Finn) 435–470
Richold II 470–533
Beroaldus 533–590
Adgillis I (Aldgisl) 590–672 (or ?–680)
Radbod I (Redbad) 672–723 (or 680–719)
Adgillis II (Poppo) 723–737 (or 719–734)
Gondebold (Adgillis III) 737–749 (or 734–?)
Radbod II 749–775

Lady of Ameland

Tekla ?–806

Notes on selected rulers

Trór, or Thor, slew the Duke of Thrúdheim, and became its king. He travelled far and wide, overcoming many adversaries. In the Northern half of his kingdom met a prophetess named Sibil, or Sif – the fairest of all women – whom he married. This account from the Prose Edda closely parallels Tolkien’s story of how Elessar (Aragorn) came to the throne of Gondor following the death of its Ruling Steward (though the latter, Denethor II, took his own life), and his marriage to Arwen who came from the North. Thrúdheim (Gondor) corresponds to Austria, Switzerland and Italy, extending into the Adriatic, rather than to Thrace, as stated in the Prose Edda (see Geography for a more detailed analysis).
Scéaf, or King Sheave to use Tolkien’s rendering of his name (The Lost Road and Other Writings), was an ancient culture hero to the Germanic peoples. He was washed ashore as a child in a boat, and later accepted as king. Though not explicitly stated, that this event occurred as a result of a great flood fits our reconstructed chronology perfectly. If the flood occurred in 2194 BC, the average length of generation before and after of this divide is almost exactly the same – 130 and 128 years, respectively. This also happens to be very close to that of the rulers of Númenor (131 years), who, in common with the descendants of Elessar and Arwen, had a strong Elven genetic component. Tolkien tells us that King Sheave’s seven sons became the ancestors of the Danes, Goths, Swedes, Northmen, Franks, Frisians, Swordmen, Saxons, Swabes, English and Langobards. According to early texts such as Widsith and Æthelweard’s 10th century Chronicon, Scéaf (Sheave) was washed ashore on an island named Scani, or Scandza (i.e. Scania, or Southern Sweden – Skênland in the Oera Linda Book), though according to William of Malmesbury’s 12th century Gesta regum Anglorum he reigned from Schleswig in North Germany. According to the genealogies, Scéaf was the ancestor of Woden, but there seems to be some confusion here because the Oera Linda Book gives the name Wodin to an individual who can only be Scéaf himself – so perhaps the name Woden or Wodin came to be applied to all members of the dynasty. Scéaf’s father is given in the Prose Edda as Magi, whereas the Oera Linda Book states that the Mâgy, ruler of the Finns, became the father-in-law of Wodin. Furthermore the presumed dates of Scéaf’s life and reign exactly parallel those of Wodin in the Oera Linda Book. According to the latter, by 2013 BC he was living at Lumka-mâkja in what is now the Netherlands. In that year he led an army to save Skênland (Southern Sweden) from the invading Finns, but took it over himself as its king, in alliance with the Mâgy, whose daughter he married. Wodin disappeared seven years later.
Woden, or Vóden (Odin), as it says in the Prose Edda, led his people from Thrúdheim to the Northlands, which he conquered and divided amongst his sons – Vegdeg, his firstborn, took East Saxland, Beldeg took Westphalia, Sigi took Frankland, Skjöldr took Reidgothland (Jutland), and Sæmingr took Norway. Odin took Sweden for himself, and was succeeded there by his son Yngvi. From these descend the original royal dynasties of most of Northern Europe. As we have seen, however, most of these exploits properly belong to his ancestor Scéaf. If we count up the generations we find that this latter Woden was a contemporary of King Asinga Ascon of the Frisians, many of whose lands he conquered, handing them over to his own sons to govern.
Witta, or Ottor Wǽfre according to Tolkien (The Book of Lost Tales Part One), fled to Heligoland – the Holy Island – from his home in Angeln, when his uncle, Beorn, murdered his father, Eoh (or Vitgils according to the Prose Edda). On Heligoland, Ottor married Cwen (i.e. Queen), and they had two sons – Hengest and Horsa. After Cwen’s death Ottor sailed to the West and arrived at Tol Eressëa, where he settled at the Cottage of Lost Play in Kortirion and learnt the history and lore of the Elves, who called him Eriol, or Angol. He married the Elf-maid Naimi, and they had a son named Heorrenda. According to the earliest version of the tale, some time later occurred the Faring Forth, in which the Lost Elves of the Great Lands rose up against the servants of Melko (Melkor), and Ulmo uprooted Tol Eressëa and dragged it across the sea to the East. Ossë attempted to drag it back, but it broke in two. At the subsequent Battle of Rôs (Brittany), the Elves were defeated by the forces of Melko and retreated back to Tol Eressëa, which was itself then invaded. At the Battle of the Heath of the Sky-roof (Ladwen-na-Dhaideloth), which took place near Tavrobel and was witnessed by Ottor, the Elves and their allies fled over the rivers Gruir and Aros, and Tol Eressëa fell under the power of evil men. Ottor is also described by Tolkien as a descendant of Eärendil, providing further evidence that our initial assumption equating Trór with Elessar (Aragorn) is correct.
Hengist, or Hengest, his brother Horsa and half-brother Heorrenda, in the earliest version of the tale, conquered Tol Eressëa from the evil men and it became known as England – with the fragment broken off by Ossë becoming Ireland. The notion that Tol Eressëa became England belongs to Tolkien’s earliest myth cycle and seems incompatible with the Shire being situated in what is now the English Midlands. However, a later version of the story (The Book of Lost Tales Part Two) states that after the Elder Days, the Elves settled in Luthany (Lúthien), ruled over by a mortal king named Inwë (Ingwë), who sailed over the sea to Tol Eressëa and founded towns there which he named after those in Luthany, such as Kortirion and Tavrobel. Luthany was later cut off from the mainland by flooding, and became the island of Britain, but when the Rumhoth (Romans) invaded, the remaining Elves fled to Tol Eressëa. So the events described above, from the Faring Forth, happened not in Tol Eressëa but in Luthany (Britain), and the Faring Forth itself, along with the Battle of Rôs, became part of a prophecy associated with the Final Battle (Dagor Dagorath). The conquest of England by Hengist and Horsa began in the year AD 449, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and the leader of the evil men (a term also used for the Rumhoth) is named in that source as Vortigern. Hengest settled at Kortirion (Warwick), Horsa at Taruithorn (Oxford) and Heorrenda at Tavrobel (Great Haywood, Staffs.). Horsa was slain in battle in 455, Hengest died in 488, and the fate of the half-Elven Heorrenda is unknown.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives Hengist’s son as Æsc (d. 512). The Historia Brittonum, however, names Octa as Hengist’s son, though Bede tells us that Octa was the son of ‘Orric, surnamed Oisc’ (i.e. Æsc), from whom the Kings of Kent later claimed descent. Since Tolkien makes it clear that Hengest and his brothers settled in the Midlands of England, rather than the South East, it is presumably to the Iclings – the Kings of Mercia – that we should look for his true heirs.
 
 
We who of the earth are born will lead you through the healing storm,
I
t’s time to follow the path of the ancient ones!

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