Three Rings for the Elven Kings
Ella kom ye la! I cried unto these ones, I've wandered through the dark so long! I've waited through the night for the rising sun!



History of Middle-earth

The following lists have been compiled from information contained in Tolkien’s writings – in particular The Return of the King, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales and The War of the Jewels. Tolkien gives us no data after the time of Eldarion, and so for the Fourth and later ages other sources have been used, which have been noted in detail below. All the dates given by Tolkien for the history of Middle-earth can be converted to BC dates using a simple formula: the Years of the Sun began in 10,153 BC, the Second Age in 9563 BC, the Third Age in 6122 BC, and the Fourth Age (Gondor) in 3102 BC. As for later ages, we only have the following statement, made by Tolkien in 1958: “But they have, I think, quickened; and I imagine we are actually at the end of the Sixth Age, or in the Seventh.” (Letters, #211) Any attempt to assign dates to the beginning of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Ages must therefore remain speculative (see Chronology for such an attempt).

Folk of Bëor (First House of the Edain)

The Folk of Bëor entered Beleriand in 9844 BC and ceased to exist as an independent people in 9694 BC, with their descendants eventually migrating to Númenor. The list on the right derives from The Silmarillion and The War of the Jewels.

Lords of the Folk of Bëor

Balan (Bëor the Old) 9844–9843 (d. 9799)
Baran (Bëor the Young) 9843–9774
Boron 9774–9746
Boromir 9746–9722
Bregor 9722–9706
Bregolas 9706–9699
Barahir 9699–9694

Haladin (Second House of the Edain)

The Haladin entered Beleriand in 9842 BC but were not united under a single chieftain until 9779 BC. They ceased to exist as an independent people in 9653 BC, their descendants eventually migrating to Númenor. The list on the right is derived from The Silmarillion and The War of the Jewels.

Chieftains of the Haladin

Haleth (fem.) 9779–9734
Haldan 9734–9703
Halmir 9703–9683
Haldir 9683–9682
Handir 9682–9659
Brandir the Lame 9659–9655
Hardang 9655–9653

Folk of Marach (Third House of the Edain)

The Folk of Marach, later known as the Folk of Hador, entered Beleriand in 9841 BC and ceased to exist as an independent people in 9652 BC, their descendants eventually migrating to Númenor. The list on the right is derived from The Silmarillion and The War of the Jewels.

Lords of the Folk of Marach

Marach 9841–9778
Malach Aradan 9778–9756
Magor 9756–?
Hador Lórindol ?–9699
Galdor the Tall 9699–9692
Húrin Thalion 9692–9652

Kingdom of Númenor

Founded as a new home for the Edain, now known as Dúnedain (Men of the West) on an island in the Great Sea, after the destruction of Beleriand in 9564 BC. Númenor was later destroyed during the Change of the World in 6245 BC. The list on the right is derived from Unfinished Tales.

Kings and Queens of Númenor

Elros Tar-Minyatur (Gimilzôr) 9532–9122
Vardamir Nólimon (Zimravrati) 9122–9121 (d. 9093) with...
Tar-Amandil (Ar-Aphanuzîr) 9122–8974 (d. 8961)
Tar-Elendil (Ar-Gimilzîr) 8974–8824 (d. 8813)
Írimon Tar-Meneldur (Ar-Minûlzûr) 8824–8681 (d. 8622)
Anardil Tar-Aldarion 8681–8489 (d. 8466)
Tar-Ancalimë (fem.) 8489–8284 (d. 8279)
Tar-Anárion 8284–8170 (d. 8160)
Tar-Súrion 8170–8008 (d. 7990)
Tar-Telperiën (fem.) 8008–7873 (d. 7873)
Tar-Minastir 7873–7695 (d. 7691)
Tar-Ciryatan (Ar-Balkumagan) 7695–7535 (d. 7529)
Tar-Atanamir the Great 7535–7343
Tar-Ancalimon 7343–7178
Tar-Telemmaitë 7178–7038
Tar-Vanimeldë (fem.) 7038–6927
Herucalmo Tar-Anducal 6927–6907
Tar-Alcarin 6907–6827
Tar-Calmacil (Ar-Belzagar) 6827–6739
Tar-Ardamin (Ar-Abattarîk) 6739–6665
Tar-Herunúmen (Ar-Adûnakhôr) 6665–6602
Tar-Hostamir (Ar-Zimrathôn) 6602–6531
Tar-Falassion (Ar-Sakalthôr) 6531–6462
Tar-Telemnar (Ar-Gimilzôr) 6462–6387
Tar-Palantir the Farsighted (Ar-Inziladûn) 6387–6309
Míriel (Ar-Zimraphel) (fem.) 6309 (d. 6245)
Tar-Calion (Ar-Pharazôn the Golden) 6309–6245

Kingdom of Arnor

One of the two Realms in Exile founded after the destruction of Númenor in 6245 BC (Gondor being the other), Arnor was situated in the north-west of Middle-earth. The kingdom lasted until 5262 BC, when it was divided. The list on the right derives from The Return of the King.

Kings of Arnor

Elendil the Tall (also King of Gondor) 6244–6123 with...
Isildur (also King of Gondor) 6244–6121
Valandil 6121–5874
Eldacar 5874–5784
Arantar 5784–5688
Tarcil 5688–5608
Tarondor 5608–5521
Valandur 5521–5471
Elendur 5471–5346
Eärendur 5346–5262

Kingdom of Arthedain

The most important of the three kingdoms into which Arnor was divided in 5262 BC (the others being Cardolan and Rhudaur, the kings of which are unknown). Arthedain was sometimes referred to as Arnor. The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Kings of Arthedain

Amlaith of Fornost 5262–5177
Beleg 5177–5094
Mallor 5094–5013
Celepharn 5013–4932
Celebrindor 4932–4851
Malvegil 4851–4774
Argeleb I 4774–4767
Arveleg I 4767–4714
Araphor 4714–4534
Argeleb II 4534–4453
Arvegil 4453–4380
Arveleg II 4380–4310
Araval 4310–4232
Araphant 4232–4159
Arvedui Last-king 4159–4149 (d. 4148)

Rangers of the North

After the fall of Arthedain in 4149 BC, the royal line was preserved as a chieftainship amongst the Rangers of the North (i.e. those of the Dúnedain who survived in the area of the former Kingdom of Arnor). The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Chieftains of the Rangers of the North

Aranarth 4147–4017
Arahael 4017–3946
Aranuir 3946–3876
Aravir 3876–3804
Aragorn I 3804–3796
Araglas 3796–3668
Arahad I 3668–3600
Aragost 3600–3535
Aravorn 3535–3469
Arahad II 3469–3404
Arassuil 3404–3339
Arathorn I 3339–3275
Argonui 3275–3211
Arador 3211–3193
Arathorn II 3193–3190
Aragorn II (later Elessar Telcontar) 3190–3104 (d. 2982)

Kingdom of Gondor

One of the two Realms in Exile founded after the destruction of Númenor in 6245 BC (Arnor being the other), Gondor was situated far to the south of Arnor. Despite the dying out of its royal line in 4073 BC, the kingdom survived right up until the War of the Ring, and in 3104 BC became the core territory of the newly founded Reunited Kingdom. The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Kings of Gondor

Elendil the Tall (also King of Arnor) 6244–6123 with...
Isildur (also King of Arnor) 6244–6121 and...
Anárion 6244–6124 and...
Meneldil 6124–5965
Cemendur 5965–5885
Eärendil 5885–5799
Anardil 5799–5712
Ostoher 5712–5631
Tarostar Rómendacil I 5631–5582
Turambar 5582–5456
Atanatar I 5456–5375
Siriondil 5375–5293
Tarannon Falastur 5293–5210
Eärnil I 5210–5187
Ciryandil 5187–5108
Ciryaher Hyarmendacil I 5108–4974
Atanatar II the Glorious 4974–4897
Narmacil I 4897–4829
Calmacil 4829–4819
Minalcar Romendacil II 4819–4757
Valacar 4757–4691
Vinitharya Eldacar (first reign) 4691–4686 (d. 4633)
Castamir the Usurper 4686–4676
Vinitharya Eldacar (second reign) 4676–4633
Aldamir 4633–4583
Vinyarion Hyarmendacil II 4583–4502
Minardil 4502–4489
Telemnar 4489–4487
Tarondor 4487–4325
Telumehtar Umbardacil 4325–4273
Narmacil II 4273–4267
Calimehtar 4267–4187
Ondoher 4187–4179
Interregnum 41794178
Eärnil II 4178–4080
Eärnur 4080–4073

Ruling Stewards of Gondor

Mardil the Steadfast 4073–4043
Eradan 4043–4007
Herion 4007–3975
Belegorn 3975–3919
Húrin I 3919–3879
Túrin I 3879–3845
Hador 3845–3728
Barahir 3728–3711
Dior 3711–3688
Denethor I 3688–3646
Boromir 3646–3634
Cirion 3634–3556
Hallas 3556–3518
Húrin II 3518–3495
Belecthor I 3495–3468
Orodreth 3468–3438
Ecthelion I 3438–3425
Egalmoth 3425–3380
Beren 3380–3360
Beregond 3360–3312
Belecthor II 3312–3251
Thorondir 3251–3241
Túrin II 3241–3209
Turgon 3209–3170
Ecthelion II 3170–3139
Denethor II 3139–3104

Kingdom of Rohan

The kingdom of the Rohirrim, or Horse-lords of the Riddermark, founded when the Éothéod were granted land in the province of Calenardhon by Cirion, Steward of Gondor, in 3613 BC. The list on the right derives from The Return of the King.

Kings of the Mark (First Line)

Eorl the Young 3613–3578
Brego 3578–3553
Aldor the Old 3553–3478
Fréa 3478–3464
Frëawine 3464–3443
Goldwine 3443–3424
Déor 3424–3405
Gram 3405–3382
Helm Hammerhand 3382–3364 with...


Wulf (de facto) 3365–3364

Kings of the Mark (Second Line)

Fréaláf Hildeson 3364–3325
Brytta Léofa 3325–3281
Walda 3281–3272
Folca the Hunter 3272–3259
Folcwine 3259–3220
Fengel 3220–3170
Thengel 3170–3143
Théoden Ednew 3143–3104

Kings of the Mark (Third Line)

Éomer Éadig 3104–3039
Elfwine the Fair 3039–?

The Shire

Land of the Hobbits, first settled in 4522 BC. Nominally subject to the Kings of Arthedain, of which it formed a part, after the fall of that kingdom the Hobbits instituted the office of Thain to discharge the functions of the former kings (the names of some of the earlier Thains are not recorded). The list on the right is derived from The Return of the King.

Shire-thains (Oldbucks)

Bucca of the Marish 4144–?
Ten more Oldbuck Thains, names unknown, then...
Gorhendad ?–3783 (d. ?)

Shire-thains (Tooks)

Isumbras I 3783–?
Eight more Took Thains, including, in unknown order...
Isumbras II
Isengrim I
Ferumbras I
Paladin I
With four others, names unknown, then...
Isengrim II 3440–3401
Isumbras III 3401–3364
Ferumbras II 3364–3322
Fortinbras I 3322–3275
Gerontius the Old Took 3275–3203
Isengrim III 3202–3193
Isumbras IV 3193–3184
Fortinbras II 3184–3143
Ferumbras III 3143–3108
Paladin II 3108–3089
Peregrin I 3089–3039 (d. ?)
Faramir I 3039–?

Reunited Kingdom & the Descendants of Elessar

For Elessar and his descendants as rulers of the Reunited Kingdom, established in 3104 BC as a result of the War of the Ring, we must turn to Tolkien’s own sources, such as Snorri Sturluson’s 13th century Prose Edda and the earlier Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The list of descendants of Trór (Thór) – equated here with Elessar (Aragorn) – as recorded in the Prose Edda, is reproduced in blue. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle provides another version of the same list, shown in white. It omits the first seven generations and adds a few extra ones later on. Tolkien’s names, where known, are placed first, in red, and derive from The Return of the King, The Lost Road and Other Writings and The Book of Lost Tales.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Prose Edda
The main inhabitants of the Reunited Kingdom, the Dúnedain, were the ancestors of the Germanic, or Teutonic, peoples of Northern Europe, and the language represented by Tolkien as Westron, the Common Speech, is the ancestor of the Germanic language family. According to the Oera Linda Book, after the flood of 2194/2193 BC, the Northern peoples were ruled by a series of Folk Mothers in a matriarchal system of government that lasted until 590 BC. After Seskef (Scéaf), therefore, the authority of the line of Elessar was presumably confined to the South – where they gradually lost still more territory to other peoples such as the Gauls and Romans – until Vóden (Woden) migrated to the North and reconquered it around 100 BC, sharing it out among his sons.

Folk Mothers
Fasta 2194/2193–2145 BC (or after)
Minna fl. 2013 BC
Rôsamond Hel-licht 1631–1621 BC (or after)
Frâna ?–590 BC
Kings of the Reunited Kingdom (Telcontari)
Foundation of the Reunited Kingdom, 3104 BC
Elessar Telcontar
3104–2982 BC
2982–? BC
Kings in the South
Flooding of North Sea and other areas, c. 2200 BC



Kings in the North
Migration to the North, division of kingdom, c. 100 BC

Ottor Wǽfre
Kings in the West
Settlement of Tol Eressëa, which became England, AD 449



AD ?–488
AD 488–512

Notes on selected rulers

1. Trór, or Thor, slew the duke of Thrúdheim (Thrace), and became its king. He travelled far and wide, overcoming many adversaries, and in the northern half of his kingdom met a prophetess named Sibil, or Sif – the fairest of all women – whom he married. This account from the Prose Edda closely parallels Tolkien’s story of how Aragorn (Elessar) came to the throne of Gondor following the death of its Ruling Steward (though the latter, Denethor II, took his own life), and his marriage to Arwen who came from the North. Thrúdheim, or Gondor, corresponds to Austria and Italy, extending into the Adriatic, rather than to Thrace, as stated in the Prose Edda (see Geography for a detailed analysis).
8. Scéaf, or King Sheave to use Tolkien’s rendering of his name (The Lost Road and Other Writings), was an ancient culture hero to the Germanic peoples. He was washed ashore as a child in a boat, and later accepted as king. Though not explicitly stated, that this event occurred as a result of a great flood is both eminently logical and fits our chronology perfectly, adding further veracity to it. If the flood, as we strongly suspect, occurred around 2200 BC, the average length of generation on either side of this divide is almost exactly the same – 129 and 128 years respectively. This also happens to be very close to that of the kings of Númenor (131 years), who, like the descendants of Aragorn and Arwen, had a strong Elven genetic component. King Sheave’s seven sons became the ancestors of the Danes, Goths, Swedes, Northmen, Franks, Frisians, Swordmen, Saxons, Swabes, English and Langobards. According to early texts such as Widsith and Æthelweard’s 10th century Chronicon, Scéaf (Sheave) was washed ashore on an island named Scani, or Scandza (i.e. Scania, the southern region of Sweden), though according to William of Malmesbury’s 12th century Gesta regum Anglorum he reigned from Schleswig in what is now north-west Germany. The dynasty’s most important seat, however, remained in the South, in Thrúdheim (Gondor), until the time of Vóden.
24. Woden, or Vóden (Odin) in the Prose Edda, led his people from Thrúdheim (Gondor) to the Northlands, which he divided amongst his sons – Vegdeg (his firstborn, or at least, his first named son) took East Saxland, Beldeg took Westphalia, Sigi took Frankland, Skjöldr took Reidgothland (Jutland), and Sæmingr took Norway. Odin took Sweden for himself, and was succeeded there by his son Yngvi. From these descend the original royal dynasties of most of Northern Europe. Counting the generations back we find that Vóden must have reigned in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. In 113 BC two Northern tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, invaded Noricum – site of Minas Tirith – and a local tribe called the Taurisci appealed to the Romans for help. The Cimbrian War, as it was called, lasted until 101 BC, with the Northerners moving through Gaul and Iberia before finally being defeated. These events seem to be the historical basis for the legends of Woden’s migration to the North, described from a Roman point of view. In should be noted, however, that the Oera Linda Book dates the migration much earlier, to 2013 BC, and states that Woden (or Wodin) lived at Lumka-mâkja in what is now the Netherlands, before conquering Skênland (Sweden) from the invading Finns, where he reigned for seven years.
27. Witta, or Ottor Wǽfre according to Tolkien (The Book of Lost Tales, vol. 1), fled to Heligoland – the Holy Island – from his home in Angeln, when his uncle, Beorn, murdered his father, Vitrgils (or Eoh according to Tolkien). On Heligoland Ottor married Cwen (i.e. Queen), and they had two sons – Hengest and Horsa. After Cwen’s death Ottor sailed to the west and arrived at Tol Eressëa, where he settled at the Cottage of Lost Play in Kortirion and learnt the history and lore of the Elves, who called him Eriol or Angol. He married the Elf-maid Naimi, and they had a son named Heorrenda. According to the earliest version of the tale, some time later occurred the Faring Forth, in which the Lost Elves of the Great Lands rose up against the servants of Melko (Melkor), and Ulmo uprooted Tol Eressëa and dragged it across the sea to the east. Ossë attempted to drag it back, but it broke in two. At the subsequent Battle of Rôs (Brittany) the Elves were defeated by the forces of Melko and retreated back to Tol Eressëa, which was itself then invaded. At the Battle of the Heath of the Sky-roof (Ladwen-na-Dhaideloth), which took place near Tavrobel and was witnessed by Ottor, the Elves and their allies fled over the rivers Gruir and Aros, and Tol Eressëa fell under the power of evil men. Since Ottor is also described by Tolkien as a descendant of Eärendil, this is yet further evidence that our initial assumption equating Trór with Aragorn is correct.
28. Hengist, or Hengest, his brother Horsa and half-brother Heorrenda, in the earliest version of the tale, conquered Tol Eressëa from the evil men and it became known as England – with the fragment broken off by Ossë becoming Ireland. The notion that Tol Eressëa became England belongs to Tolkien’s earliest myth cycle and seems incompatible with the Shire being situated in what is now the English Midlands. However, a later version of the story (The Book of Lost Tales, vol. 2) states that after the Elder Days, the Elves settled in Luthany (Lúthien), ruled over by a mortal king named Inwë (Ingwë), who sailed over the sea to Tol Eressëa and founded towns there which he named after those in Luthany, such as Kortirion and Tavrobel. Luthany was later cut off from the mainland by flooding, and became the island of Britain, but when the Rumhoth (Romans) invaded, the remaining Elves fled to Tol Eressëa. So the events described above, from the Faring Forth, happened not in Tol Eressëa but in Luthany (Britain), and the Faring Forth itself, along with the Battle of Rôs, became part of a prophecy associated with the Final Battle (Dagor Dagorath). The conquest of England by Hengist and Horsa began in the year AD 449 according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and the leader of the evil men (a term also used for the Rumhoth) is named in that source as Vortigern. Hengest settled in Kortirion (Warwick), Horsa in Taruithorn (Oxford) and Heorrenda in Tavrobel (Great Haywood, Staffs.). Horsa was slain in battle in 455, Hengest died in 488, and the fate of the half-Elven Heorrenda is unknown.
29. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives Hengest’s son as Æsc (d. 512). The Historia Brittonum, however, names Octa as Hengest’s son, though Bede tells us that Octa was the son of ‘Orric, surnamed Oisc’ (i.e. Æsc), from whom the Kings of Kent later claimed descent. Scholars now doubt that he was actually connected with Hengest at all.
We who of the earth are born will lead you through the healing storm,
t’s time to follow the path of the ancient ones!

© 2003 / 2015 Ash Branch